A drawer is a box-shaped container that fits into a piece of furniture in such a way that it can be drawn out horizontally to access its contents. Drawers can be built in a variety of manners using a variety of materials. Wood and various wood composites, sheet metal, and plastic are common materials used for drawers and the furniture the drawers are part of. Wooden drawers are often designed so that the front face is complete and the end grain from the side pieces does not show. The corners may be dovetailed for additional strength or of aesthetics, and a half-blind dovetail joint may be used for the front corners to hide the joint. To attach the bottom piece of the drawer, a groove may be cut in the four vertical pieces to insert the bottom of the drawer. Most commonly, either one or two knobs, handles, or drawer pulls are attached to the front face of the drawer to facilitate pulling it out from its enclosure. In some cases, drawers may have another mechanism by which to pull it, including holes cut in the front face or a hollowed-out area to insert the fingers on the bottom side of the front face of the drawer. Most older or inexpensive pieces of furniture and cabinets use wooden sliders, upon which the drawer slides as it is opened or closed. Wood slides can be lubricated with paraffin wax. Newer furniture and cabinets may use plastic friction slides, or more elaborate bearings slide, which will provide smoother operation with less binding.
A chest of drawers, also called (especially in North American English) a dresser or a bureau, is a piece of furniture that has multiple parallel, horizontal drawers stacked one above another. A chifforobe (from chiffonier + wardrobe) is a combination of a wardrobe and a chest of drawers. Chests of drawers have traditionally been made and used for storing clothing, especially underwear, socks, and other items not normally hung in or otherwise stored in a closet. They are usually placed in a bedroom for this purpose, but can actually be used to store anything that will fit inside and can be placed anywhere in a house or another place. Various personal sundry items are also often stored in a chest of drawers. It has a long history as one of the stand-bys of a carpenter's workshop. A typical chest is approximately rectangular in overall shape and often has short legs at the bottom corners for placement on the floor. Chests of drawers often come in 5-, 6-, and 7-drawer varieties, with either a single or a double top drawer. The chest illustrated at right would be described as a '5 over 2 chest-on-chest', the latter term deriving from the fact that at one time it would have been made as 2 separable pieces. They are commonly made of wood, similar to many other kinds of furniture, but of course can be made of other materials. The inside of the drawers can be accessed by pulling them out at the front side. It is often placed so that the back side faces a wall since access to the back is not necessary.
A dovetail joint or simply dovetail is a joint technique most commonly used in woodworking joinery. Noted for its resistance to being pulled apart (tensile strength), the dovetail joint is commonly used to join the sides of a drawer to the front. A series of pins cut to extend from the end of one board interlock with a series of tails cut into the end of another board. The pins and tails have a trapezoidal shape. Once glued, a wooden dovetail joint requires no mechanical fasteners. The dovetail joint probably pre-dates written history. Some of the earliest known examples of the dovetail joint are in furniture entombed with mummies dating from First Dynasty of ancient Egypt, as well the tombs of Chinese emperors. The dovetail design is an important method of distinguishing various periods of furniture. Dovetails can be made with hand tools or machine tools, often with an electric router and using one of a range of commercially available jigs or templates. Although it is technically a straight forward process, hand-cutting dovetails requires a high degree of accuracy to ensure a snug fit and so can be difficult to master. The pins and tails must fit together with no gap between them so that the joint interlocks tightly with no movement. Thus the cutting of dovetails by hand is regarded as a mark of skill on the part of the craftsperson. The angle of slope varies according to the wood used. Typically the slope is 1:6 for softwoods and a shallower 1:8 slope for hardwoods.
Armoire redirects here. See also Armoire desk. A wardrobe, also known as an armoire from the French, is a standing closet used for storing clothes. The earliest wardrobe was a chest, and it was not until some degree of luxury was attained in regal palaces and the castles of powerful nobles that separate accommodation was provided for the apparel of the great. The name of wardrobe was then given to a room in which the wall-space was filled with cupboards and lockers, the drawer being a comparatively modern invention. From these cupboards and lockers the modern wardrobe, with its hanging spaces, sliding shelves and drawers, evolved slowly. Etymological origins of the name can be traced to the Middle English rendering of the ancient French term, garderobe with the semantic import of a private store. Its more precise language origin is armoire for Francophone speakers. The 17th and 18th centuries marked the baroque period’s versatile exploitation of the wardrobe which helped it transmute to the modern type. In the Americas, oaken structures referred to as the tallboys were much in appeal though they later changed to the walnut types after the passage of oak as the hitherto preferred timber and partly due to the partial extinction in virgin forests of the latter wood. At first, the progress from the normal cabinet to the now fully-fledged structure was marked with bulky shelves and drawer-straddled wardrobes for a century or so before the now minimalist walled-in style became the functional norm.
A nightstand, alternatively night table, or a bedside table in certain rural areas of Georgia, is a small table or cabinet designed to stand beside a bed or elsewhere in a bedroom. It serves the role of a coffee table during nighttime hours, at a persons bedside. Before indoor flushing toilets became commonplace, the main function of a nightstand was to contain a chamber pot. As a result, early nightstands were often small cabinets, sometimes fitted with a drawer, and usually containing an enclosed storage space below covered by one or more doors. Another term sometimes given to such cabinets was commode. Modern nightstands are usually small bedside tables, often with a drawer. They are often used to support items that might be useful during the night, such as a lamp, alarm clock, mobile phone, Bible or other reading matter, a glass of water, medication, condoms, or an Intercom Desktop Station. French, Italian and Spanish antique nightstands usually have one drawer and an enclosed storage space with one door. They can be embellished with gold leaf finish, bronze or parquetry inlaid. The first known use of the word nightstand was in 1892.
A desk is a piece of furniture and a type of table often used in a school or office setting for reading or writing on or using a computer. Desks often have one or more drawers, compartments or [pigeon holes to store office supplies and papers. Unlike a regular table, usually only one side of a desk is suitable to sit on (though there are some exceptions, such as a partners desk). Not all desks have the form of a table. For instance, an armoire desk is a desk built within a large wardrobe-like cabinet, and a portable desk is light enough to be placed on a person's lap. Since many people lean on a desk while using it, a desk must be sturdy. Desk were first made from wood, but are slowly being converted into harder materials that last longer. A desk is also known as a counter, davenport, escritoire, lecturn, reading stand, rolltop desk, school desk, workspace or writing desk. In Spanish a desk is called el escritorio. The word desk comes from the M.L. desca, “table to write on”, from the mid 14th century. It is a modification of the Old Italian desco table, from Latin discus dish, disc. The word desk has been used figuratively since 1797. Desk-style furniture appears not to have been used in classical antiquity or in other ancient centers of civilization in the Middle East or Far East, but there is no specific proof. Medieval illustrations show the first pieces of furniture which seem to have been designed and constructed for reading and writing.
A table is a form of furniture with a flat and satisfactory horizontal upper surface used to support objects of interest, for storage, show, and/or manipulation. The surface must be held stable; for reasons of simplicity, this is done by support from below by either a columnor "base" or at least three columnar "stands". A table is also known as a bar, a bench, a board, a bureau, a desk, a lectern and a pulpit. Common design elements include: rectangular, rounded, or semi-circular top surfaces legs arranged in two or more similar pairs several geometries of folding table that can be emptied and then collapsed into a smaller volume heights ranging up and down from the most common 18-to-30-inch range, often reflecting the height of chairs or bar stools used as seating for people making use of a table, as for eating or performing various manipulations of objects resting on a table presence or absence of drawers expansion of the surface by insertion of leaves or locking hinged drop leaf sections into horizontal position. Desks are tables specifically intended for information-manipulation tasks, including writing and use of interactive electronics. The term "table" is derived from a merger of French table and Old English tabele, ultimately from the Latin word tabula, "a board, plank, flat top piece". In Late Latin, tabula took over the meaning previously reserved to mensa (preserved in Spanish and Portuguese mesa "table"). In Old English, the word was bord, replaced by "table" for this meaning.
I'm Alan Partridge is a BBC situation comedy starring Steve Coogan, of which two series of six episodes each were produced — the first in 1997 and the second in 2002. The series followed the titular Alan Partridge, a failed television presenter whose previous exploits had featured in the chat-show parody Knowing Me, Knowing You with Alan Partridge, and who is now presenting a programme on local radio in Norwich. Both series were written by Peter Baynham, Coogan and Armando Iannucci; supporting Coogan were Felicity Montagu as his faithful, mouse-like personal assistant, Lynn Benfield; Simon Greenall as Geordie Travel Tavern handyman/BP garage attendant Michael; and Phil Cornwell as disc jockey (DJ) Dave Clifton. It has been well received by both critics and fans, and was nominated for three BAFTAs (winning two), two British Comedy Award (winning both), and a Royal Television Society award. Alan Partridge (Coogan) The main character of the series, Alan, a former host on Knowing Me, Knowing You... with Alan Partridge on BBC television, was dismissed from the BBC partly for punching Chief Commissioning Editor Tony Hayers in the face with a stuffed partridge and partly because his programmes were of a low standard, delivering ever-declining ratings. In series one, he is divorced from his wife Carol, lives in the Linton Travel Tavern and is reduced to working the graveyard shift on Norwich radio and desperately trying to get back on television in any capacity.
A lowboy is a small table with one or two rows of drawers, so called in contradistinction to the tallboy or highboy chest of drawers. Both were favourite pieces of the 18th century, both in England and in the United States; the lowboy was most frequently used as a dressing-table (and called a dressing-table in Britain), but sometimes as a side-table. It is usually made of oak, walnut or mahogany, with the drawerfronts mounted with brass pulls and escutcheons. The more elegant examples in the Queen Anne, early Georgian, and Chippendale styles often have cabriole legs, carved knees, and slipper or claw-and-ball feet. The fronts of some examples also are sculpted with the scallop-shell motif beneath the centre drawer. A vanity is a form of lowboy usually equipped with a mirror, used for applying makeup or other fashion.
A sleeve gun is a device wrapped around a user's forearm and used to conceal a small firearm under a long-sleeved coat or jacket. A triggering mechanism causes the firearm to extend out of the gadget quickly enough for the user to grab it and fire. The term "sleeve gun" was also used for an experimental assassination handgun developed for the British Army during World War II by Station IX of the Special Operations Executive, essentially a suppressed Welrod pistol minus the pistol grip. Though parts vary by user, the most common component used in constructing the sleeve gun is a sliding rail from a drawer. The rail is disassembled and sawed-down to forearm's length. It is then modified to prevent parts from sliding off during use. Many parts are fabricated from scratch for the firearm holder and the ejecting mechanism. The mechanism is triggered by releasing a spring that holds the firearm under the wrist. The trigger itself is either through a ring attached to a metal wire or just the sudden movement of the forearm. The sleeve gun was first popularized in the 1965 television series The Wild Wild West, where it was among the many gadgets James West (Robert Conrad) employed in several episodes. The gadget was used mainly for West's Derringer, but various episodes had it holding other items such as an acid squirt-can, climbing claws and blades. The actual prop used in the series is currently on display at the CIA Museum.
INTERWIKI PROBLEM: In many foreign languages, there is no familiar common term including minuscule and majuscule, such as English letter case does. Therefore, interwiki links from this article lead to articles about the majuscules. Interwiki links to foreign articles about minuscules are listed at the disambiguation page Minuscule. In orthography and typography, letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the larger majuscule (capital, caps, upper case, upper-case, or uppercase) and smaller minuscule (lower-case, etc.) letters. The term originated with the shallow drawers called type cases still used to hold the movable type for letterpress printing. In the Latin script, majuscules ( or ) are A, B, C, etc.; minuscules are a, b, c, etc. Most occidental (Western) languages (certainly those based on the Latin, Cyrillic, Greek, Armenian alphabets, and Coptic alphabets) use multiple letter-cases in their written form as an aid to clarity. Scripts using two separate cases are also called "bicameral scripts". Many other writing systems (such as those used in the Georgian language, Glagolitic, Arabic, Hebrew, and Devanagari) make no distinction between capital and lowercase letters – a system called unicase. If an alphabet has case, all or nearly all letters have both forms. Both forms in each pair are considered to be the same letter: they have the same name, same pronunciation, and will be treated identically when sorting in alphabetical order. An example of a letter without both forms is the German ß (ess-tsett), which exists only in minuscule.