Project management is the discipline of planning, organizing, securing, managing, leading, and controlling resources to achieve specific goals. A project is a temporary endeavor with a defined beginning and end (usually time-constrained, and often constrained by funding or deliverables), undertaken to meet unique goals and objectives, typically to bring about beneficial change or added value. The temporary nature of projects stands in contrast with business as usual (or operations), which are repetitive, permanent, or semi-permanent functional activities to produce products or services. In practice, the management of these two systems is often quite different, and as such requires the development of distinct technical skills and management strategies. The primary challenge of project management is to achieve all of the project goals and objectives while honoring the preconceived constraints. Typical constraints are scope, time, and budget. The secondary—and more ambitious—challenge is to optimize the allocation of necessary inputs and integrate them to meet pre-defined objectives. Until 1900 civil engineering projects were generally managed by creative architects, engineers, and master builders themselves, for example Vitruvius (first century BC), Christopher Wren (1632–1723), Thomas Telford (1757–1834) and Isambard Kingdom Brunel (1806–1859). It was in the 1950s that organizations started to systematically apply project management tools and techniques to complex engineering projects.
enQuire — Grants, Contract and Project Management is a web-based software application used as a platform for project, contract and grant management, as well as reporting and planning. Initially designed for the specific business requirements of the Australian Government, Queensland Government and Queensland Regional Bodies to manage natural resources projects, enQuire has since seen adoption outside of this industry and user segment. The use of enQuire by Natural Resource Management bodies within Queensland has been cited as a reason for the improved efficiency, quantity and quality of reporting Technically, enQuire - Grants, Contract and Project Management is implemented as a Java application built on a MySQL database. enQuire - Grants, Contract and Project Management is hosted and supported under the Software as a Service model by Tactiv Pty Ltd. The system was first released in 2005 under the name ViSTA NRM Online, proactively changing its name to 'enQuire - Grants, Contract and Project Management' in 2007 to avoid possible confusion with Windows Vista, which was being released at the time. The enQuire project and support team is based predominantly in Brisbane, Australia.
Outcome mapping is a project progress measurement system that was designed by the grant-making organisation International Development Research Centre (IDRC). It differs from traditional metrics in that it does not focus on measuring deliverables and its effects on primary beneficiaries but on behavioural change exhibited by secondary beneficiaries. The outcome mapping process consist of a lengthy design phase followed by a cyclic record-keeping phase. Outcome mapping is intended primarily for charitable projects in developing countries funded by large donor organisations in developed countries. The outcome mapping manual was first published in 2001 the Evaluation Unit of the IDRC. It is based on the outcome engineering model developed by Barry Kibel of the Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation. Much of the terminology and procedures that occur in outcome mapping are also present in outcome mapping. The key difference between outcome mapping and most other project evaluation systems is its approach to the problem that a project's direct influence over a community only lasts for as long as the project is running, and developing agencies have difficulty in attributing resultant change in those communities directly to the actions of the project itself. The outcome mapping approach is to focus less on the direct deliverables of the project and to focus more on the behavioural changes in peripheral parties affected by the project team.
Sergey Dmitrievich Bushuyev (Сергiй Дмитрович Бушуєв) is a Ukrainian Professor for Project management. He is International Editorial Advisor for the global project management eJournal PM World Today. Bushuyev studied at faculty of Automation and Information Technology of the Kyiv Engineering-Construction Institute. 1973 he earned his Ph.D. in Sciences of Project Management, in 1986 his Dr.Sc. of Computer Management Systems. 1988 he became Professor in Strategic Project Management and Organizational Development at Kyiv National University of Construction and Architecture KNUCA, now head of the Department of Project management at KNUCA. Sergey Bushuyev has been an active member of the New York Academy of Sciences since 1996 and active member of the National Academy of Science of Ukraine (UAS) and Russian Academy of Sciences in Saint Petersburg since 1998. In 2003 he was named as honorary Scientist and Technician of Ukraine. He is recipient of an Award as the best professor of Ukraine in 1987. He was Adjunct Professor at the University of Technology, Sydney (UTS) in Australia and Visiting Professor at École supérieure de commerce de Lille (ESC Lille) in France. He is already Member of the Certification Validation Management Board of the International Project Management Association IPMA and Member of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, NATO Project Management Workshop, Globalisation of the Project Management profession (NASA granted). Bushuyev is a Founder and the President of Ukrainian Project Management Association UPMA.
The Cockburn Scale, also known as the Project Classification Scale, is a method of describing how much formal process a software project requires. The scale was described in Alistair Cockburn's book Agile Software Development. According to the author, the scale can be applied to other types of project, not only those that employ Agile methodologies. The Cockburn Scale categorizes projects according to "criticality" and "size". Process criticality is defined as the worst probable effect of an unremedied defect: Loss of Life (L) Loss of Essential Money (E) Loss of Discretionary Money (D) Loss of Comfort (C) Process size is defined as the size of the project's development staff. It is an open-ended scale, but the most commonly used values are 6, 20, 40, 100, and 200. A project is described by a pair of criticality and size indicators: for example, a two-person, life-critical project is categorized as a L6, while a 50-person project that, if it fails, could jeopardize the profits of an organization but not the organization's continued existence is categorized as a D100. The criticality and size of a project can be juxtaposed on a grid: Project classes further from the bottom left corner of the table require a more formal process than project classes closer to the bottom left corner.
In project management, the term scope has two distinct uses: Project Scope and Product Scope. Project Scope "The work that needs to be accomplished to deliver a product, service, or result with the specified features and functions." Product Scope "The features and functions that characterize a product, service, or result." Notice that Project Scope is more work-oriented, (the hows,) while Product Scope is more oriented toward functional requirements. (the whats.) If requirements are not completely defined and described and if there is no effective change control in a project, scope or requirement creep may ensue. Scope creep management is important for effective project management. Projects are expected to meet strict deadlines with resource restraints, and an unvetted and unapproved change in the scope can affect the success of the project. Scope creep sometimes causes cost overrun. Scope creep is a term which refers to the incremental expansion of the scope of a project, which may include and introduce more requirements that may not have been a part of the initial planning of the project, while nevertheless failing to adjust schedule and budget. There are two distinct ways to separate scope creep management. The first is business scope creep, and the second is called features (also technology) scope creep. The type of scope creep management is always dependent upon on the people who create the changes.
"Cost engineering [is] the engineering practice devoted to the project cost management, involving such activities as estimating, cost control, cost forecasting, investment appraisal, and risk analysis." "Cost Engineers budget, plan and monitor investment projects. They seek the optimum balance between cost, quality and time requirements." A cost engineer is "an engineer whose judgment and experience are utilized in the application of scientific principles and techniques to problems of estimation; cost control; business planning and management science; profitability analysis; project management; and planning and scheduling." One key objective of cost engineering is to arrive at accurate cost estimates and schedules and to avoid cost overruns and schedule slips. Cost engineering goes beyond preparing cost estimates and schedules by supporting assessment and decisionmaking. "The discipline of ‘cost engineering’ can be considered to encompass a wide range of cost-related aspects of engineering and programme management, but in particular cost estimating,cost analysis/cost assessment, design-to-cost, schedule analysis/planning and risk assessment." The broad array of cost engineering topics represent the intersection of the fields of project management, business management, and engineering. Most people have a limited view of what engineering encompasses. The most obvious perception is that engineering addresses technical issues such as the physical design of a structure or system. However, beyond the physical manifestation of a design of a structure or system (for example, a building), there are other dimensions to consider such as the money, time, and other resources that were invested in the creation of the building. Cost engineers refer to these investments collectively as "costs". Cost engineering then can be considered an adjunct of traditional engineering. It recognizes and focuses on the relationships between the physical and cost dimensions of whatever is being "engineered". Cost engineering is most often taught at universities as part of construction engineering, engineering management, civil engineering, and related curricula because it is most often practiced on engineering and construction capital projects. Engineering economics is a core skill and knowledge area of cost engineering. AACE International "is dedicated to the tenets of furthering the concepts of Total Cost Management and Cost Engineering. Total Cost Management is the effective application of professional and technical expertise to plan and control resources, costs, profitability and risk. Simply stated, it is a systematic approach to managing cost throughout the life cycle of any enterprise, program, facility, project, product or service. This is accomplished through the application of cost engineering and cost management principles, proven methodologies and the latest technology in support of the management process. ... Total Cost Management is that area of engineering practice where engineering judgment and experience are utilized in the application of scientific principles and techniques to problems of business and program planning; cost estimating; economic and financial analysis; cost engineering; program and project management; planning and scheduling; and cost and schedule performance measurement and change control. In summary, the list of practice areas ... are collectively called cost engineering; while the “process” through which these practices are applied is called total cost management or TCM.
Onepoint Project is a project management software package marketed by Onepoint Software GmbH combining project planning, progress tracking, project monitoring, project controlling and reporting. Onepoint focuses on integrating enterprise project management solutions based on Standards like IPMA and PMI. The integration of formal with agile project management including connectivity to JIRA is one of the major goals of Onepoint Project. Onepoint provides commercial proprietary as well as gratis open-source products. Onepoint's flagship products are Onepoint Project Enterprise Server and Onepoint Project Enterprise Cloud that are available for on premise and OnDemand/SaaS deployment respectively. Onepoint Project is licensed on a per-user basis and includes a solid set of enterprise project management functionality in its base offering. Further optional modules, so-called "options", are available for program management, risk management, issue tracking and project controlling allowing customers to pick and choose according to their focus areas and needs. Onepoint Project has been selected by IT analyst firm Gartner as one of the 31 companies included in its 2010 Magic Quadrant for IT Project and Portfolio Management. Gerald Aquila starts "Onepoint Project Initiative" in late 2003 with the goal to create an easy-to-use and practical project management solution for small and medium businesses and research institutions.
In the military sciences, the term military campaign applies to large scale, long duration, significant military strategy plan incorporating a series of inter-related military operations or battles forming a distinct part of a larger conflict often called a war. The term derives from the plain of Campania, a place of annual wartime operations by the armies of the Roman Republic. A military campaign denotes the time during which a given military force conducts combat operations in a given area (often referred to as AO, area of operation). A military campaign may be executed by either a single Armed Service, or as a combined services campaign conducted by land, naval, air, cyber and space forces. The purpose of a military campaign is to achieve a particular desired resolution of a military conflict as its strategic goal. This is constrained by resources, geography and/or season. A campaign is measured relative to the technology used by the belligerents to achieve goals, and while in the pre-industrial Europe was understood to be that between the planting (late spring) and harvest times (late autumn), it has been shortened during the post-industrial period to a few weeks. However, due to the nature of campaign goals, usually campaigns last several months, or even a year as defined by Trevor N. Dupuy. A campaign is a phase of a war involving a series of operations related in time and space and aimed towards a single, specific, strategic objective or result in the war.
Contract management or contract administration is the management of contracts made with customers, vendors, partners, or employees. Contract management includes negotiating the terms and conditions in contracts and ensuring compliance with the terms and conditions, as well as documenting and agreeing on any changes or amendments that may arise during its implementation or execution. It can be summarized as the process of systematically and efficiently managing contract creation, execution, and analysis for the purpose of maximizing financial and operational performance and minimizing risk. Common commercial contracts include employment letters, sales invoices, purchase orders, and utility contracts. Complex contracts are often necessary for construction projects, goods or services that are highly regulated, goods or services with detailed technical specifications, intellectual property (IP) agreements, and international trade. A study has found that for "42% of enterprises...the top driver for improvements in the management of contracts is the pressure to better assess and mitigate risks" and additionally,"nearly 65% of enterprises report that contract lifecycle management (CLM) has improved exposure to financial and legal risk." A contract is a written or oral legally-binding agreement between the parties identified in the agreement to fulfill the terms and conditions outlined in the agreement.
In the software industry, program management is an aspect of software product management. Program management or programme management is the process of managing several related projects, often with the intention of improving an organization's performance. In practice and in its aims it is often closely related to systems engineering and industrial engineering. The Program Manager has oversight of the purpose and status of all projects in a Program and can use this oversight to support project-level activity to ensure the overall program goals are likely to be met, possibly by providing a decision-making capacity that cannot be achieved at project level or by providing the Project Manager with a program perspective when required, or as a sounding board for ideas and approaches to solving project issues that have program impacts. Typically in a program there is a need to identify and manage cross-project dependencies and often the PMO (Program or Project Management Office) may not have sufficient insight of the risk, issues, requirements, design or solution to be able to usefully manage these. The Program manager may be well placed to provide this insight by actively seeking out such information from the Project Managers although in large and/or complex projects, a specific role may be required. However this insight arises, the Program Manager needs this in order to be comfortable that the overall program goals are achievable. There are two different views of how programmes differ from projects.