Pharmacy is the health profession that links the health sciences with the chemical sciences and it is charged with ensuring the safe and effective use of pharmaceutical drugs. The word derives from the φάρμακον (pharmakon), meaning "drug" or "medicine" (the earliest form of the word is the Mycenaean Greek pa-ma-ko, attested in Linear B syllabic script). The scope of pharmacy practice includes more traditional roles such as compounding and dispensing medications, and it also includes more modern services related to health care, including clinical services, reviewing medications for safety and efficacy, and providing drug information. Pharmacists, therefore, are the experts on drug therapy and are the primary health professionals who optimize medication use to provide patients with positive health outcomes. An establishment in which pharmacy (in the first sense) is practiced is called a pharmacy, chemist's or drug store. In the United States and Canada, drug stores commonly sell not only medicines, but also miscellaneous items such as candy (sweets), cosmetics, and magazines, as well as light refreshments or groceries. The word pharmacy is derived from its root word pharma which was a term used since the 15th–17th centuries. In addition to pharma responsibilities, the pharma offered general medical advice and a range of services that are now performed solely by other specialist practitioners, such as surgery and midwifery.
Pharmacists are healthcare professionals who practice in pharmacy, the field of health sciences focusing on safe and effective medication use. The role of the pharmacist has shifted from the classical "lick, stick, and pour" dispensary role (that is, "lick & stick the labels, count & pour the pills"), to being an integrated member of the health care team directly involved in patient care. Pharmacists undergo university-level education to understand biochemical mechanisms of action of drugs, drug uses and therapeutic roles, side effects, potential interactions, and monitoring parameters. This is mated to education in anatomy, physiology, and pathophysiology. Professional interpretation and communication of this specialized knowledge to patients, physicians, and other health care providers are functions which pharmacists provide, and are central to the provision of safe and effective drug therapy. In many countries, pharmacists must hold the title of Doctor of Pharmacy in order to exercise their profession. The most common pharmacist positions are that of a community pharmacist (also referred to as "retail pharmacist" or "dispensing chemist"), or a hospital pharmacist, where they instruct and counsel on the proper use and adverse effects of medically prescribed drugs and medicines. In most countries, the profession is subject to professional regulation. Depending on the legal scope of practice, pharmacists may contribute to prescribing (also referred to as "pharmacist prescriber") and administering certain medications (e.g. immunizations in some jurisdictions).
Compounding (also pharmaceutical compounding and compounding pharmacy) is the creation of a particular pharmaceutical product to fit the unique needs of a patient. To do this, Compounding Pharmacists combine and/or process appropriate ingredient(s) utilizing various tools. This may be done for medically necessary reasons, such as to change the form of the medication from a solid pill to a liquid, to avoid a non-essential ingredient that the patient is allergic to, or to obtain the exact dose needed. It may also be done for voluntary reasons, such as adding favorite flavors to a medication. Before mass production of medications became normal, compounding was a routine activity among pharmacists. Community pharmacists who have experience with compounding techniques are now less common. Pharmaceutical compounding has ancient roots. Hunter-gatherer societies had some knowledge of the medicinal properties of the animals, plants, molds, fungus and bacteria as well as inorganic minerals within their environment. Ancient civilizations utilized pharmaceutical compounding for religion, grooming, keeping the healthy well, treating the ill and preparing the dead. These ancient compounders produced the first oils from plants and animals. They discovered poisons and the antidotes. They made ointments for wounded patients as well as perfumes for customers. The earliest chemists were familiar with various natural substances and their uses.
Centro Escolar University (Filipino: Pamantasang Centro Escolar) is a private university in Manila, Philippines. It was founded on June 3, 1907 by two women, Librada Avelino and Carmen de Luna, and was originally called Centro Escolar de Señoritas. It became a university in 1933. Today, the university has three campuses, the main campus is the Manila campus in Mendiola street, the Malolos campus established in 1978 is in the northern suburb of Malolos City in Bulacan province, and the Makati Campus in the Makati Central Business District. Originally, its Parañaque campus was part of the university's system until it was phased out in the early 1990s. CEU Cebu will be the first CEU campus outside Luzon. The university is also planning to establish 2 more campuses. The CEU Baguio and CEU Davao. The university celebrated its centennial in 2007. The university offers programs in the Arts, Humanities, Sciences, and Allied Medicine. CEU also has Dentistry and Pharmacy programs. All of its academic programs are accredited Levels 3 and 4 by the Federation of Accrediting Agencies of the Philippines. CEU is the first university in the Philippines to be given an ISO:9001 certification on its campuses. It was granted full autonomy status by the Commission on Higher Education. The university is listed on the Philippine Stock Exchange with the stock symbol, CEU. It is the "Richest University in the Philippines" in terms of Net Assets. Second behind CEU is the Far Eastern University.
Online pharmacies, Internet pharmacies, or Mail Order Pharmacies are pharmacies that operate over the Internet and send the orders to customers. Online or internet pharmacies might include: Pharmacy benefit manager - A large administrator of corporate prescription drug plans Legitimate internet pharmacy in the same country as the person ordering. Legitimate internet pharmacy in a different country than the person ordering. This pharmacy usually is licensed by its home country and follows those regulations, not those of the international orders. Illegal or unethical internet pharmacy. The web page for an illegal pharmacy may contain lies about its home country, procedures, or certifications. The "pharmacy" may send outdated (expired shelf life ) or counterfeit medications and may not follow normal procedural safeguards. Conventional stationary pharmacies usually have controlled distribution systems from the manufacturer. Validation (drug manufacture) and Good distribution practices are followed. Home delivery of pharmaceuticals can be a desirable convenience but sometimes there can be problems. The shipment of drugs through the mail and parcel post is sometimes a concern for temperature-sensitive pharmaceuticals. Uncontrolled shipping conditions can include high and low temperatures outside of the listed storage conditions for a drug.
The University of Santo Tomas Faculty of Pharmacy is the pharmaceutical school of the University of Santo Tomas, the oldest and the largest Catholic university in Manila, Philippines. Established in 1871, the faculty is the first pharmaceutical institution in the Philippines. It is a consistent Top Performing Pharmacy School & Medical Technology School in the Philippine Pharmacist & Medical Technologist Licensure Examinations. Being the oldest in the Philippines, the Faculty of Pharmacy was founded in May 1871 by virtue of the Modification of the Moret decree. It was during the Spanish regime, the degree in pharmacy was one of six in years. In 1901, when the American administration took over, the curriculum was revised to four years. Then in 1916 the degree of Bachelor of Science in Pharmacy was further revised to three years. It was until 1930 when a four-year curriculum was adapted. Finally in 1954, the curriculum was revised to five years. In 1984, the degree of Bachelor of Science in Pharmacy curriculum was again reduced to four years with the integration of some subjects. In 1962, Faculty of Pharmacy continued to expand with the addition of the degree of Bachelor of Science in Biochemistry and also the degree of Bachelor of Science in Medical Technology. University of Santo Tomas has gained the distinction of introducing the degree of Bachelor of Science in Biochemistry for the first time in the Philippines. The Faculty of Pharmacy, also has the distinction of being the first institution in the University of Santo Tomas to admit female students during 1924.
The International Pharmaceutical Federation or Fédération Internationale Pharmaceutique, abbreviated as FIP, is an international federation of national organisations that represent pharmacists and pharmaceutical scientists. It was founded in 1912 and is based in The Hague in the Netherlands. Founded in 1912, the International Pharmaceutical Federation (FIP) is the global federation of national associations of pharmacists and pharmaceutical scientists in official relations with the World Health Organization (WHO). Through its 127 Member Organisations, FIP represents and serves almost two million practitioners and scientists around the world. Over the years, FIP’s priorities have shifted in both focus and content to meet the needs and expectations of the profession, in expanding healthcare services and harmonising emerging scientific developments. At the time of its inception in 1912, the Federation was primarily focused on the pharmaceutical sciences. FIP executed its Mission through Congresses and events mainly through the gatherings of European participants and leaders. Through its almost 100 year history, FIP has expanded both literally and figuratively. Changes in pharmacy and the emergence of Pharmacy Practice as a cornerstone of the profession have led FIP to become globally visible for its advocacy on the role of the pharmacist in the provision of healthcare, while still maintaining its grounding in the pharmaceutical sciences.
Dentistry is the branch of medicine that is involved in the study, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of diseases, disorders and conditions of the oral cavity, maxillofacial area and the adjacent and associated structures and their impact on the human body. Dentistry is widely considered necessary for complete overall health. Doctors who practice dentistry are known as dentists. The dentist's supporting team – which includes dental assistants, dental hygienists, dental technicians, and dental therapists – aids in providing oral health services. Dentistry usually encompasses very important practices related to the oral cavity. Oral diseases are major public health problems due to their high incidence and prevalence across the globe with the disadvantaged affected more than other socio-economic groups. The majority of dental treatments are carried out to prevent or treat the two most common oral diseases which are dental caries (tooth decay) and periodontal disease (gum disease or pyorrhea). Common treatments involve the restoration of teeth as a treatment for dental caries (fillings), extraction or surgical removal of teeth which cannot be restored, scaling of teeth to treat periodontal problems and endodontic root canal treatment to treat abscessed teeth. All dentists in the United States undergo at least two years of undergraduate studies, but most complete a bachelors degree. This schooling is followed by four years of dental school to qualify as a "Doctor of Dental Surgery" (DDS) or "Doctor of Dental Medicine" (DMD).
Nursing is a profession within the healthcare sector focused on the care of individuals, families, and communities so they may attain, maintain, or recover optimal health and quality of life. Nurses may be differentiated from other health care providers by their approach to patient care, training, and scope of practice. Nurses practice in a wide diversity of practice areas with a different scope of practice and level of prescriber authority in each. Many nurses provide care within the ordering scope of physicians, and this traditional role has come to shape the historic public image of nurses as care providers. However, nurses are permitted by most jurisdictions to practice independently in a variety of settings depending on training level. In the postwar period, nurse education has undergone a process of diversification towards advanced and specialized credentials, and many of the traditional regulations and provider roles are changing. Prior to the foundation of modern nursing, nuns and the military often provided nursing-like services. The religious and military roots of modern nursing remain in evidence today in many countries, for example in the United Kingdom, senior female nurses are known as sisters. Nurses execute the "Orders" of other health care professionals in addition to being responsible for their own practice. The Crimean War was a significant development in nursing history, when English nurse Florence Nightingale, laid the foundations of professional nursing with the principles summarised in the book Notes on Nursing.
The Massachusetts College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences (MCPHS, informally MCP) is an accredited, private institution located in the Longwood Medical and Academic Area of Boston, Massachusetts. As an institution with a prominent history of specializing in medical careers, the college provides traditional and accelerated programs of study that combine in-depth knowledge with hands-on clinical practice focused on professional education in Pharmacy and the Health Sciences. Its location within the Longwood Medical Area provides students with academic and clinical opportunities at various prestigious medical and research institutions. Since 2000, MCPHS has expanded to include two additional campuses, located in Worcester, Massachusetts and Manchester, New Hampshire. Founded as the Massachusetts College of Pharmacy in 1823 by fourteen Boston pharmacists, MCPHS is the oldest institution of higher education in Boston. It is also the second-oldest and largest College of Pharmacy in the United States, preceded only by the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy (Now University of the Sciences in Philadelphia), which was founded in 1821. In 1825, the college published the First American Pharmaceutical Library Catalogue, detailing the effects of many pharmaceuticals. In 1852, the college received a charter from the Great Court of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts to grant its first formal degree. In 1918, the College established the George Robert White Building in Boston’s Longwood Medical Area, across from Harvard Medical School to serve as its main campus.
China Nepstar (Hǎiwángxīng chén), the trading name of China Nepstar Chain Drugstore Ltd. (Zhōngguó hǎiwángxīng chénliánsuǒ yàodiàn gǔfèn yǒuxiàn gōngsī), is China's largest retail drugstore chain on the number of directly operated stores. As of March 31, 2009, the Company had 2,336 stores across 63 cities, one headquarter distribution center and 12 regional distribution centers in China. It uses directly operated stores, centralized procurement and a network of regional distribution centers to provide customers with pharmacy services and a wide variety of other merchandise, including over-the-counter ("OTC") drugs, nutritional supplements, herbal products, personal care products, family care products, and convenience products including consumables and seasonal and promotional items. China Nepstar's strategy of competitive pricing, customer loyalty programs (7 million members as of April 2008) and private label offerings has enabled it to capitalize on the robust demographic and economic growth trends in China to achieve a leading brand and market position. The Company also offers products under its own brand names (private label products). It offers 1,356 private label products. The company pioneered the concept of chain retailing in pharmacies in China. June 1995: Shenzhen Nepstar Medical Co. Ltd.