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A smartphone is a mobile phone built on a mobile computing platform, with more advanced computing ability and connectivity than a feature phone. The first smartphones mainly combined the functions of a personal digital assistant (PDA) and a mobile phone or camera phone. Today's models also serve to combine the functions of portable media players, low-end compact digital cameras, pocket video cameras, and GPS navigation units. Modern smartphones typically also include high-resolution touchscreens, web browsers that can access and properly display standard web pages rather than just mobile-optimized sites, and high-speed data access via Wi-Fi and mobile broadband. The most common mobile operating systems (OS) used by modern smartphones include Apple's iOS, Google's Android, Microsoft's Windows Phone, Nokia's Symbian, RIM's BlackBerry OS, and embedded Linux distributions such as Maemo and MeeGo. Such operating systems can be installed on many different phone models, and typically each device can receive multiple OS software updates over its lifetime. The distinction between smartphones and feature phones can be vague and there is no official definition for what constitutes the difference between them. One of the most significant differences is that the advanced application programming interfaces (APIs) on smartphones for running third-party applications can allow those applications to have better integration with the phone's OS and hardware than is typical with feature phones.

AT&T Mobility LLC (branded and referred to as AT&T, formerly Cingular Wireless LLC) is a wholly owned subsidiary of AT&T that provides wireless services to 103 million subscribers in the United States, including Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. AT&T Mobility is the second largest wireless telecommunications provider in the United States and Puerto Rico below Verizon Wireless, which has 108.3 million customers as of the third quarter of 2011. AT&T Mobility is headquartered in the Lenox Park area of DeKalb Co. Georgia, just outside Atlanta. Originally Cingular Wireless LLC from 2000 to 2007, a joint venture between SBC Communications and BellSouth, the company acquired the old AT&T Wireless in 2004; SBC later acquired the original AT&T and re-branded as "AT&T". Cingular became wholly owned by AT&T in December 2006 as a result of AT&T's acquisition of BellSouth. In January 2007, Cingular confirmed it would re-brand itself under the AT&T name. Although the legal corporate name change occurred immediately, for both regulatory and brand-awareness reasons both brands were used in the company's signage and advertising during a transition period. The transition concluded in late June, just prior to the rollout of the Apple iPhone. On March 20, 2011, AT&T Mobility announced its intention to acquire T-Mobile USA from Deutsche Telekom for $39 billion. If it had received government and regulatory approval, AT&T would have had more than 130 million subscribers, but the U.S.

Windows Mobile was a mobile operating system developed by Microsoft for smartphones and Pocket PCs. It was based on the Windows CE kernel and first appeared as the Pocket PC 2000 operating system. It was supplied with a suite of basic applications developed with the Microsoft Windows API, and is designed to have features and appearance somewhat similar to desktop versions of Windows. Third parties can develop software for Windows Mobile with no restrictions imposed by Microsoft. Software applications were purchasable from Windows Marketplace for Mobile during the service's lifespan. Most early Windows Mobile devices came with a stylus, which can be used to enter commands by tapping it on the screen. The primary touch input technology behind most devices were resistive touchscreens which did not require a stylus and work with any pressed input method; later devices used capacitive sensing. Along with touchscreens a large variety of form factors existed for the platform. Some devices featured slideout keyboards, while others featured minimal face buttons. In February 2010, Microsoft announced a new phone platform, Windows Phone, to supersede Windows Mobile, incompatible with Windows Mobile devices and software. The final version of Windows Mobile, released after the announcement of Windows Phone, was 6.5.5. Phones running Windows Mobile cannot run software for Windows Phone.

Symbian is a mobile operating system (OS) and computing platform designed for smartphones and currently maintained by Accenture. The Symbian platform is the successor to Symbian OS and Nokia Series 60; unlike Symbian OS, which needed an additional user interface system, Symbian includes a user interface component based on S60 5th Edition. The latest version, Symbian^3, was officially released in Q4 2010, first used in the Nokia N8. In May 2011 an update, Symbian Anna, was officially announced, followed by Nokia Belle (previously Symbian Belle) in August 2011. Symbian OS was originally developed by Symbian Ltd. It is a descendant of Psion's EPOC and runs exclusively on ARM processors, although an unreleased x86 port existed. Some estimates indicate that the number of mobile devices shipped with the Symbian OS up to the end of Q2 2010 is 385 million. By April 5, 2011, Nokia released Symbian under a new license and converted to a proprietary model as opposed to an open source project. On February 11, 2011, Nokia announced that it would migrate from Symbian to Windows Phone 7. Nokia CEO Stephen Elop announced Nokia's first Windows phones at Nokia World 2011: the Lumia 800 and Lumia 710. These phones were launched on November 14, 2011. On June 22, 2011 Nokia made an agreement with Accenture for an outsourcing program. Accenture will provide Symbian-based software development and support services to Nokia through 2016; about 2,800 Nokia employees became Accenture employees as of October 2011. The transfer was completed on September 30, 2011.

Malware, short for malicious software, is software to help hackers disrupt users computer operation, gather sensitive information, or gain unauthorized access to a computer system. While it is often software, it can also appear in the form of script or code. 'Malware' is a general term used by computer professionals to mean a variety of forms of hostile, intrusive, or annoying software or code. Malware includes computer viruses, worms, trojan horses, spyware, adware, most rootkits, and other malicious programs. In law, malware is sometimes known as a computer contaminant, for instance in the legal codes of several U.S. states, including California and West Virginia. Malware is not the same as defective software, which is software that has a legitimate purpose but contains harmful bugs that were not noticed before release. Sometimes, malware is disguised as genuine software, and may come from an official company website. An example would be software used for useful purposes that also includes tracking software to gather marketing statistics for advertising. Therefore, some security programs may find "potentially unwanted programs" or "PUP". Though a computer virus is malware that can reproduce itself, the term is sometimes used erroneously to refer to the entire category. An example of a computer virus which is not a malware, but is benevolent is Fred Cohen's compression virus.

Nokia Corporation (ˈnɔkiɑ) (, , ) is a multinational communications corporation headquartered in Keilaniemi, Espoo, Finland. Its principal products are mobile electronic devices, primarily mobile telephones and other communications devices. It also offers Internet services such as applications, games, music, maps, media and messaging through its Ovi platform, and free-of-charge digital map information and navigation services through its wholly owned subsidiary Navteq. Nokia has a joint venture with Siemens, Nokia Siemens Networks, which provides telecommunications network equipment, solutions and services. Nokia has 130,000 employees across 120 countries, sales in more than 150 countries and annual revenues of around €38 billion. As of 2012 it is the world's second-largest vendor of mobile phones by unit sales (after Samsung), with a global market share of 22.5% in the first quarter. Nokia is a public limited-liability company listed on the Helsinki, Frankfurt, and New York stock exchanges. It was the world's 143rd-largest company as measured by revenue in Fortune Global 500 list of 2011. Nokia was the world's largest vendor of mobile phones from 1998 to 2012. However over the past five years it has suffered declining market share as a result of the growing use of smartphones, principally the Apple iPhone and devices running on Google's Android platform. As a result its share price has fallen from a high of US$40 in 2007 to under US$3 in 2012. Since February 2011 Nokia has had a strategic partnership with Microsoft, as part of which all Nokia smartphones will incorporate Microsoft's Windows Phone operating system. Nokia unveiled its first Windows Phone handsets, the Lumia 710 and 800, in October 2011.

Android is a Linux-based operating system for mobile devices such as smartphones and tablet computers. It is developed by the Open Handset Alliance, led by Google, and other companies. Google purchased the initial developer of the software, Android Inc., in 2005. The unveiling of the Android distribution in 2007 was announced with the founding of the Open Handset Alliance, a consortium of 86 hardware, software, and telecommunication companies devoted to advancing open standards for mobile devices. Google releases the Android code as open-source, under the Apache License. The Android Open Source Project (AOSP) is tasked with the maintenance and further development of Android. Android has a large community of developers writing applications ("apps") that extend the functionality of the devices. Developers write primarily in a customized version of Java. Apps can be downloaded from third-party sites or through online stores such as Google Play (formerly Android Market), the app store run by Google. In October 2011, there were more than 500,000 apps available for Android, and the estimated number of applications downloaded from the Android Market as of December 2011 exceeded 10 billion. Android was listed as the best-selling smartphone platform worldwide in Q4 2010 by Canalys with over 300 million Android devices in use by February 2012. According to Google's Andy Rubin, as of December 2011, there were over 700,000 Android devices activated every day.

Samsung Group (; sam.sʌŋ ɡɯ'ɾup̚, informally Samsung) is a South Korean multinational conglomerate company headquartered in Samsung Town, Seoul. It comprises numerous subsidiaries and affiliated businesses, most of them united under the Samsung brand, and is the largest South Korean chaebol. Notable Samsung industrial subsidiaries include Samsung Electronics (the world's largest information technology company measured by 2011 revenues), Samsung Heavy Industries (the world's second-largest shipbuilder measured by 2010 revenues), and Samsung Engineering and Samsung C&T (respectively the world's 35th- and 72nd-largest construction companies). Other notable subsidiaries include Samsung Life Insurance (the world's 14th-largest insurance company), Samsung Everland (the oldest theme park in South Korea) and Cheil Worldwide (the world's 19th-largest advertising agency measured by 2010 revenues). Samsung produces around a fifth of South Korea's total exports and its revenues are larger than many countries' GDP; in 2006, it would have been the world's 35th-largest economy. The company has a powerful influence on South Korea's economic development, politics, media and culture, and has been a major driving force behind the "Miracle on the Han River". According to the founder of Samsung Group, the meaning of the Korean hanja word Samsung is "tristar" or "three stars". The word "three" represents something "big, numerous and powerful"; the "stars" mean eternity.

A personal digital assistant (PDA), also known as a palmtop computer, or personal data assistant, is a mobile device that functions as a personal information manager. Nearly all current PDAs have the ability to connect to the Internet. A PDA has an electronic visual display, enabling it to include a web browser, all current models also have audio capabilities enabling use as a portable media player, and also enabling most of them to be used as mobile phones. Most PDAs can access the Internet, intranets or extranets via Wi-Fi or Wireless Wide Area Networks. Most PDAs employ touchscreen technology. The first PDA was released in 1986 by Psion, the Organizer II. Followed by Psion's Series 3, in 1991, which began to resemble the more familiar PDA style. It also had a full keyboard. The term PDA was first used on January 7, 1992 by Apple Computer CEO John Sculley at the Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas, Nevada, referring to the Apple Newton. In 1996, Nokia introduced the first PDA with full mobile phone functionality, the 9000 Communicator, which grew to become the world's best-selling PDA. The Communicator spawned a new category of PDAs: the "PDA phone", now called "smartphone". Another early entrant in this market was Palm, with a line of PDA products which began with the March 1996 Pilot 1000. Today, almost all PDAs are smartphones. Over 150 million smartphones are sold each year, while "stand-alone" PDAs without phone functionality sell only about 3 million units per year.

A Pocket PC (P/PC, PPC) is also known by Microsoft as a 'Windows Mobile Classic device'. It is a hardware specification for a handheld-sized computer, personal digital assistant (PDA), that runs the Microsoft 'Windows Mobile Classic' operating system. It has some of the abilities of modern desktop PCs. As of 2010, thousands of applications exist for handhelds adhering to the Microsoft Pocket PC specification, many of which are freeware. Some of these devices are also mobile phones. Microsoft-compliant Pocket PCs can be used with many add-ons such as GPS receivers, barcode readers, RFID readers, and cameras. In 2007, with the advent of Windows Mobile 6, Microsoft dropped the name Pocket PC in favor of a new naming scheme. Devices without an integrated phone are called Windows Mobile Classic devices instead of Pocket PCs. Devices with an integrated phone and a touch screen are called Windows Mobile Professional devices and devices without a touch screen are called Windows Mobile Standard devices. The Pocket PC is an evolution from prior calculator-sized computers. Keystroke-programmable calculators which could do simple business and scientific applications were available by the 1970s. In 1982, Hewlett Packard's HP-75 incorporated a 1-line text display, an alphanumeric keyboard, BASIC language and some basic PDA abilities. The HP 95LX, HP 100LX and HP 200LX series packed a PC-compatible DOS computer with graphics display and QWERTY keyboard into a palmtop format.

Research In Motion Limited (, ) or RIM is a Canadian multinational telecommunications equipment company headquartered in Waterloo, Ontario, Canada, that designs, manufactures and markets wireless solutions for the worldwide mobile and telecommunications market. RIM provides platforms and solutions for access to information, including e-mail, voice, instant messaging, short message service (SMS), Internet and intranet-based applications and browsing. RIM’s portfolio includes the BlackBerry wireless solution, the RIM Wireless Handheld product line, software development tools and other software and hardware. It was founded by Mike Lazaridis and Jim Balsillie, who currently serves as its vice chair of RIM's Board and Chair of the Board's new Innovation Committee. The company is listed on the NASDAQ stock exchange in the USA in addition to the Toronto Stock Exchange in Canada. Prior to the manufacture of the BlackBerry, RIM worked with RAM Mobile Data and Ericsson to turn the Ericsson-developed Mobitex wireless data network into a two-way paging and wireless e-mail network. Pivotal in this development was the release of the Inter@ctive pager 950, which started shipping in August 1998. About the size of a bar of soap, this device competed against the SkyTel two-way paging network developed by Motorola. RIM's early development was financed by Canadian institutional and venture capital investors in 1995 through a private placement in the privately held company. Working Ventures Canadian Fund Inc.


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